[% setvar title Line Disciplines %]
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Maintainer: Simon Cozens <email@example.com> Date: 25 Sep 2000 Mailing List: firstname.lastname@example.org Number: 311 Version: 1 Status: Developing
This is what line disciplines are.
Line disciplines have been a much vaunted feature of 5.6, despite the fact that nobody actually got around to implementing them. This time, for sure!
First things first, what are they? Line disciplines are a way of specifying how data gets into Perl. They're based on the concept of streams, invented by Dennis Ritchie, and first appeared in Korn and Vo's sfio library. Stevens writes that
I/O streams are generalized to represent both files and regions of memory, processing modules can be written and stacked on an I/O stream to change the operation of a stream, and better exception handling.
How's this different from, for instance, generalizing source filters? Well, that's how I first tried to implement them in Perl, but line disciplines actually give you far, far more control over the file handling; your processing modules may dictate how line endings are parsed, whereas source filters have to go either before or after the data is split up into lines. Line discipline processing modules may alter the buffering behaviour of the stream, which you can't do in standard IO. (That's a hint that we're going to have to provide our own IO library to get these things working.)
OK, back to Perl. We'll want it to be possible to add these processing
modules onto filehandles from Perl, and (maybe) to create them in Perl.
We started doing this with
use open and the extensions to the binmode
syntax. Benjamin Stuhl has done lots of good work on this (and this RFC
owes a huge amount to his suggestions) and he's come up with the
following API. From C, a processing module is registered like this:
PerlIO_register_discipline(char * name, int level, VTABLE functable, void * data);
(We'll look at what
level means when we come to implementation)
Once registered, a processing module can be attached to a file handle
(Note: BKS originally suggested
+:name, but I reversed this. Seemed a
good idea at the time.)
Here are a few examples:
open ($FH, "<", "japanese.euc.gz"); binmode($FH, ":+decompress"); binmode($FH, ":+euc_to_utf8"); $foo = <$FH>; # This now UTF8.
Note that due to the concept of levels, this will still work:
open ($FH, "<", "japanese.euc.gz"); binmode($FH, ":+euc_to_utf8"); binmode($FH, ":+decompress");
I also propose that user-definable "sets" of processing modules can be
specified on the
use open 'decompress_euc' => [ '+decompress', '+euc_to_utf8' ]; open ($FH, "< :decompress_euc", "japanese.euc.gz");
Benjamin has identified 5 different types of transformation. Imagine that the data goes through 5 "rooms" before it gets to Perl-space. Each room can, in theory, have any numbers of processing modules in them, but that's not actually workable at all in practise. Only levels 1 and 3 can have several modules in them, and these modules will be implemented as a stack.
Perl also needs to provide a default module for each "room", and we'll explain that as we look into the rooms.
(The example given is for input; simply walk through the rooms backwards for output.)
This level implements buffering; it's here that the difference between,
read becomes important. Modules in this layer
must be added on the
open statement, since it controls very precisely
how Perl looks at the data even before we read anything from it.
The default behaviour is to emulate STDIO; in fact, the entirety of
STDIO apart from splitting the input into lines (
gets and friends)
gets implemented here.
This is where things like decompression happen; you're performing arbitrary transformations on the raw bytes.
Default behaviour is the operating system specific treament of carriage
returns and new lines, unless
:raw is set by
What it says. Here the data has to be converted, if necessary, to UTF8. I believe that this is Not Our Problem, as one of my other RFCs says. If you want to convert from UTF8 to
The default behaviour is to convert the data from ISO8859-1 to UTF8 for
input and vice versa for output, unless
:utf8 is set to indicate that
we're already there, in which case no action is taken.
Whatever you want to do here. Default is no action.
It's at this point that the data gets split up into records or lines;
the equivalent of
The default behaviour is to split input on newlines and do nothing to output.
W. Richard Stevens: Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment.
D. Ritchie: "A Stream Input-Output System", AT&T Bells Labs. Tech. Journal, vol. 63, no. 8, pp.1897-1910
Korn and Vo: "SFIO: Safe / Fast String / File IO", Proceedings of the 1991 Summer USENIX Conference, pp.235-255.
The sfio library.